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Kabir Das Ji has said :
Kabir Maala Kaath Kee,
Kahi Samjhave Tohi
Man Na Firave Aapna,
Kaha Firave Mohi

Chalti Chakki Dekh Kar,
Diya Kabira Roye
Dui Paatan Ke Beech Mein,
Sabit Bacha Na Koy


H H HAZUR Manav Dayal JI MAHARAJ DR IC SHARMA JI MAHARAJ
SCIENCE RELIGION & PHILOSOPHY

Although religion emerged prior to philosophy and science, the three have coexisted in some form from the beginning, generated by man’s threefold nature of knowing, feeling and willing, the urge to love and the will to control nature. Science, the disinterested search for truth about natural phenomenon is really nothing but man’s attempt to satisfy his own curiosity. Man’s religion; the acceptance of love of God and of fellow human beings issues from the emotional aspect of man. Philosophy aims at understanding the Ultimate Truth about the cosmos and the purpose of human life. It is man’s intellectual effort to affect a relationship between knowledge and feeling, science and religion and to understand their interdependence.

These three disciplines are not mutually exclusive just as the

activities of knowing, These three disciplines are not mutually exclusive just as the activities of knowing, feeling and willing in man’s behavior are not isolated. Animals may largely apprehend their environment through sensation, but man’s cognition is reflective, his sensations are meaningful. Man’s feelings go beyond the immediate pleasure and pain, they are complex wholes of feelings, instincts and emotions, all organized by reflection into a pattern called sentiment. Lastly, man’s actions are not merely impulsive tendencies, but are cool, considered voluntary acts of will, which involves reflection and reasoning.

Lower animals have affections, awareness and strivings in a rudimentary form, but these activities, without reflection remain undeveloped. And so, animals have not invented a science, adopted a religion, or propounded a philosophy.

Man’s reflection, love and volition involve a subtle understanding. They originate from soul or self, which is the core of man. All knowledge that carries the idea of unity and organization, all feelings that urge man to love, rather than hate and all actions which limpet him to manifest goodwill, owe their function to that source. The powers of soul or self, unlimited by time and space are unconscious, which is a negative view which implies the positive content of that unlimited psyche, of which consciousness is just one infinitesimal part. We admire consciousness, because it is that function through which we know, feel and will, but we should not forget that the psyche is wider than these manifestations of the soul.

The unity in all human experiences is due to the self-conscious subjective ness of man, termed ego, or personality in its conscious aspect. But beyond that beyond even the subconscious, there is a coordinating unity. Ego reflects that true self or soul, which gives unity to the aspect of psyche beyond the conscious. When the individual ego establishes connection with the soul, even the involuntary functions of breathing and circulation come under its control, as we see the highest level of meditation. [Samadhi].

The apparent of unity human personality, i.e. man’s three limited characteristics of knowledge, feeling and volition are originally associated with the source of unity of both the conscious and unconscious self, and that though consciously we consider the three separately yet they are actually interrelated and even simultaneous. It is impossible to remove thought from feeling and emotion, or the sentiment from thinking and volition. Man as a self-conscious personality experiences all these processes as a whole, and when in the state of Samadhi, soul is at its highest level, the trinity of the experience is fused into on complex whole. This highest state transcends all triads; time, space and causality; past, present and future; knower, known and knowledge; reason, faith and intuition. Hence the trinity of science, religion and philosophy is no less a ‘unity in diversity’ than the trinities of reason, faith and intuition, both evolution (reincarnation), resurrection (life eternal); Father, Son and Holy Ghost. All these represent and manifest, the same unconflicting truth, with God as the source. It is the fallacy of segregating truths which has been responsible for confusion and chaos.

Without the concept of universal consistent truth man becomes a fractured personality. The scientist says that the truth of laboratory is different from that of the church. The preacher affirms that God is irrelevant to scientific findings and that such truth differs from that of the Bible or religious scriptures. Strangely enough, this anomalous acceptance of the theory of double truth- spiritual and secular-existing like parallel lines without interconnection, is held by many intellectuals, despite the fact that the latest researchers in science have confirmed the orderly force in biological evolution, mental expansion and intellectual growth in the universe.

As an example, we know that the sun is the center of our solar system with the planets revolving round it, forming our largest known physical pattern. The smallest form atom is the perfect replica of the solar system. Both have a nucleus, as the centre of gravity, with the atom’s electrons, moving like planets around it. The repetition of the pattern in interstellar systems is the stamp of intelligent guiding source of order and uniformity.

Research in other physical sciences equally points to a harmony, where every particularized organ of the human body works for the whole and even an ordinary injury to the organism recruits the process of healing in every part of the body. There are so many examples from the biological world to prove that every part of the living organism is working for the system so purposively that one is forced to believe in the existence of a creative intelligence behind the evolution of life. The discoveries, plus the success of science in controlling nature through knowledge of immutable laws, and all evidence testifying to the uniformity in causation, reaffirms that the originator of the dynamic, creative cosmos is not any caprice, but a purposeful and intelligent, eternal Being. There is a thread of unity that runs through the world. Science aims at understanding the laws of causation, claiming that predictions in nature are logically possible, as a result of the interconnection of the forces.

Sophisticated scientists and historians of science believe that religion begins in superstition, blind faith and mythology. They allege that religion started with fear, with ghosts and spirits, animism and ancestor worship. Primitive man, they say¸ worshipping sun and moon, serpent and lion, was ignorant of the roundness of the earth, its rotation and revolution. They condemned the persecution of scientists like Galileo and Copernicus, Newton and others, redeeming man from the nonsense of religious dogmas. They stamp the ancient religions as self-deception and illusion, not realizing that in the fact, the scientist of today is collaborating truths, discovered by the man of religion at least four thousand years ago. The proofs of the motion of revolution, not only of the earth, but also of the sun, solar system and galactic center are available in Vedic literature.

Prajapati, the presiding deified force, is the core of all evolutionary existence. The Vedic literature states, ‘Prajapati remains in the center of everything: it is immanent, unborn and yet, sprouts forth in a multifarious manner; all the levels of creation in the universe are founded on it.

The Vedas theorized that earth, moon, sun galactic center are the five sections of one branch of the universe that is ours, and that numberless exist in the cosmos. The earth revolves around the sun in its orbit. The sun, which also is not stationary, revolves around another center accompanied by its planets. This center, around which our solar systems are revolving is galactic center, the Vishnu, preserver of life, the sun of the suns. The galactic center further moves around the cosmic center [Prajapati], the creative force.

In more modern language, the ultimate source and ground of creation is one finite Being, indestructible, dynamic and immanent unaffected by the evolution of the universe. As the dynamic agent, it becomes the Creator of the universe, as the immanent Being it becomes the personal, omnipresent God, the object of worship and communion.

Man is miniature universe and the image of God. The body of man represents the earth, element mind represents the moon, the Buddhi, intellect is the manifestation of the sun and man’s soul reflects both the galactic and cosmic centers of the universe.

It is difficult for the modern scientists to accept that the perfect working of the systems of the universe were known in ancient

India . But actually not only the theories of the universe, but even the theories further related to human psychology and ethics which declared that the man’s healthy integration is based on the balanced development of the body, mind, intellect and the soul. Man’s corporeal being is developed through ‘Artha’ the economic value, ‘Kama’ the satisfaction of desires, particularly the sexual desire through conjugal love which is necessary for emotional growth, Dharma, the ethical value for duty for rendering service to one’s fellow beings and nourishing the human intellect. Lastly, for spiritual growth, having recognized soul as the center of personality, one must hold Moksha, liberation as the highest goal of life.Yoga, which is known to the western world, as primilarly a physical discipline, was originally taught, as the method attaining Moksha. It is the system of bodily and mental exercise, used in attaining to one’s own inner-most self, and is as essential for a healthy and normal life, as a food for the body, the mind and the intellect. Intellect and mind are not separated. We have body, mind and soul as the three major aspects of the individual. The physical man and the universe are the concern of philosophy and the soul is normally supposed to be the business of religion. No isolation of the three is ever possible. The three must cooperate to do justice to the nature of the complex human personality.

Although, the approaches and techniques may differ, the truth of science, the truth of religion and the truth of philosophy are one, and the goal must also be one. Different scientists do not disagree about the nature of the atom. They do not quarrel about the effects of radioactivity. Truth in science is not the monopoly of any one nation, race or culture.

But, it is strange that one God, who is the father of all, the common ground of all religions has been monopolized by a view of religion, narrowed by nationality, race or culture. God is omniscient. Can he be limited to one language? If God is omnipotent, can he not manifest himself in the form desired by his devotee? If god is omnipresent, is he not equally present in the temple, mosque and church?

At the core of every religion, the unity of the spiritual element in man and the oneness of God, as the ground of all existence have been evidenced by highly developed souls. They experienced God as the final and Supreme Truth, universal and infinite, an all pervading power and an all revealing Being. Because there are infinite manifestations of that power through infinite media, the human approach to the apprehension of God is diverse. The scientists seeks God through analysis of the physical world, finding uniformity in nature, but also an infinitely receding frontier of knowledge which ultimately leads him to the threshold of man’s spiritual nature.

The spirit of soul is she, innermost nature, who’s essence is subjectivity of the agent and the experiencer. Human matter is the uttermost nature, objective in the sense of being passive and extended in time and space. It is not an agent, but the object of an agent which is the soul. Matter is not the knower, but that which is experienced.

Man’s superiority over the other beings lies in the fact that he is conscious of his subjective ness. He knows that he is the knower. He itself-conscious with consciousness only dormant. In the sub-conscious activity of the plant, life consciousness dreams. At the animal level, consciousness becomes manifest, experiencing perceptual, emotional and instinctual behavior. But in man, consciousness reaches the level of consciousness, making him a free agent. Man has the freedom of will, the power to choose between alternatives through the exercise of reason. It is man’s self –conscious soul which makes him different from the nature of other creatures.

Religion differs from science, because of its emphasis on the soul. But science is also a search for the soul, a search, directed from outside to inward. Science would not have existed, if it not been activated by the self-consciousness of the soul, nor would religion exist without the same self-conscious transcendented nature of man.

Religion aims at the understanding of the inner nature, just as science aims at understanding the outer nature. Religion experiments with the soul in the spiritual laboratory, as does science in its physical laboratory. Science arrives at the universal knowledge of matter, which transcends geographical, cultural, racial boundaries. Religion which aims at the universal knowledge of the soul, transcends all boundaries of sect, denominations and religious beliefs. Thus, science and religion have a similar stimulating and approach to truth, with a similar goal of catholicity. There is no rational antagonism between two disciplines. On the other hand, they are inter-dependent and inter-related. The truth is one, the goal is one.

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